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Single phosphorus atom transistor
A single-atom transistor is a device that can open and close an electrical circuit by the controlled and reversible repositioning of one single atom.
Until now, single-atom transistors have been created on a hit-or-miss basis, the scientists said.
The great thing is that the atoms appearance under the scanning probe microscope and its electronic fingerprint agree well with both theoretical predictions and earlier optical measurements of a single phosphorus atom in silicon, says Simmons.Simmons and her collaborators were inspired by that ideaalthough their single-atom transistor is based on the electron rather than the nuclear spins of phosphorus atoms.8 (12 4493 (2008).Therefore, the Single-Atom Transistor works as an atomic switch or atomic relay, where the switchable atom opens and closes the gap between two tiny electrodes called Source and Drain.When the teamwhich also included researchers from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Purdue University, and the universities of Sydney and Melbourneapplied a voltage across the phosphorus atom, it behaved like a transistor, switching and amplifying an electrical current.It shows that Moores Law can be scaled toward atomic scales in silicon, said Gerhard Klimeck, a professor of electrical and computer engineering at Purdue and leader of the project there.Experts who did not take part in the research were impressed by the work but said that it would be a while before there would be any practical applications in conventional electronics.Ioannis Kymissis, head of the, columbia Laboratory for Unconventional Electronics, says that more modeling of the device is necessary to ensure that the electrodes are not so small that their quantum effects start to mix with those of the phosphorus atom.The low temperatures at which the experiment was performed led Intel scientists to express caution about the results.Kane calls the single-atom transistor an experimental and engineering tour de force and says he is optimistic that more progress will be made soon.I expect that they will be able to demonstrate some sort of quantum logic device using their technology in the next few years, he says.
The researchers took great pains to assure themselves that the effects they observed were not the product of multiple atoms.
They then used a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and a technique common in lithography to replace one silicon atom in a six-atom lattice with a phosphorus atom.